By Maffo Vialli (auth.), Vittorio Erspamer (eds.)
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Chicken thymus gland. Fixation: 10 % formalin. enterochromaffin cells are enBodian technique. 132 x countered in certain localizations of a given species, while in another species they are absent , often, argentophil pre-enterochromaffin cells may be present in their place. c) Taxonomical distribution Information on the taxonomical distribution of enterochromaffin cells is of particular interest. As far as we know today, the enterochromaffin cell is charac- Brief notes on the argentophil pre-enterochromaffin cells 23 teristic of the Chordates_ Although most of the information available concerns the vertebrates, we now have some data on its presence also in the tunicates and Cephalochordata_ That typical enterochromaffin cells are present in the Ascidia, was observed in Ciona intestinalis by LISO~ (1933a), who also briefly described their characteristics.
The data indicate, at times, a differential response of the intestine from segment to segment, both in terms of cell number and weighted index of granularity. Observations of PLETSCHER (1957) also concern the decrease in reactivity of the granules under the action of reserpine. Recently, PRUSOFF (1960, 1961), applying the method of homogenization and centrifugation in density gradient mentioned earlier, found that, after treatment with reserpine, the fraction which normally contains 5-HT and ATP shows a lower content of 5-HT and lacks ATP; the quantity of the latter however does not diminish in the mitochondrial fraction.
It has also been assumed that the chemical nature of the granules may vary from one taxonomical group to another. Thus CLARA (1933, 1936), working on amphibians and reptiles (1932), came to the conclusion that it was possible to demonstrate a different reactivity of the granules; these observations are in disagreement with the findings of VIALLI and ERSPAl\IER (1933) who show that the reactions in Holocephali, Selachii, Ganoidei, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals are perfectly concordant, and, therefore - the Authors conclude - the constitution of the specific substance must also be homogeneous.
5-Hydroxytryptamine and Related Indolealkylamines by Maffo Vialli (auth.), Vittorio Erspamer (eds.)