By Fink K.

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Psychology and the History of Humankind Friedrich August Carus and the “history of humanity” The primitives and the ancients Toward a total history of psychology The psychology of the Hebrews Homeric psychology 7. Anthropology’s Place in the Encyclopedias Enlightenment encyclopedias The syntax of the Encyclopédies The Paris and Yverdon Encyclopédies The “Systèmes figurés” Anthropology in the text The anthropological transformation of morals 8. Human Perfectibility and the Primacy of Psychology Psychology in the Paris Encyclopédie Psychology in the Yverdon Encyclopédie The fields claimed for psychology Metaphysics Logic Morals The psycho-anthropology of perfectibility The union and interaction of the soul and the body 9.

On the other hand, not every field of study becomes a discipline. For example, while research into ocular vision was a coherent field in 1860s Germany, the attempts to set up university posts and institutes failed, and its “research programs” ended up flourishing within opthalmology, psychology, and physiology. 14 It is in these terms that one can analyze the creation of institutions and professions, that is, the establishment of formal structures within which scientific activity takes place and groups authorized to carry it out are formed.

A discipline would therefore be a way of imposing power relations, which themselves make possible the constitution of knowledge. Writing turned out to be one of the major instruments of “discipline” in this sense. A “disciplined” person is one whose world is that of the administrative or scientific document which in turn constitutes a new source of knowledge and consolidates a discipline. So it was with the late eighteenth-century physician who drew up tables of patients admitted to the mental asylum, or the psychologist who examined himself and others, noting down everything with the conviction that no detail may be deemed secondary.

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A brief history of mathematics by Fink K.

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