By Eliot Deutsch, Ron Bontekoe
This notable quantity deals scholars, academics and basic readers an entire introductory survey of the key non-western philosophical traditions.
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Above, he roams with the Creator, and below he makes friends with those who transcend life and death and beginning and end. In regard to the essential, he is broad and comprehensive, profound and unrestrained. In regard to the fundamental, he may be said to have harmonized all things and penetrated the highest level. However, in his response to change and his understanding of things, his principle is inexhaustible, traceless, dark and obscure, and unfathomable. (Chan, p. 177) Daoism was ostensibly a critique of Confucian humanism but, since it was taken absolutely seriously by the Confucians, it became gradually absorbed in the Confucian responses themselves.
While there is a general impression that the Chinese thinkers, unlike their counterparts in ancient Greece and India, did not develop elaborate epistemological systems with fully developed deductive methods, Graham persuasively shows that the art of argumentation based on sophisticated logical reasoning was a common practice among ancient Chinese thinkers. Epistemological questions such as how we know what we know, what criteria must be established for judging the truth claims of a proposition, and the standards of verifying the validity of a statement were raised and discussed.
The Confucian alternative is a middle path in which the self as a center of relationships can serve as a foundation for the politics of community. Understandably, the Great Learning specifies that self-cultivation ("nourishing the body") serves as the root for the regulation of the family, the governance of the state, and peace throughout the world. The same logic that makes for human flourishing as a moral agent is applied to the body politic as well. Xunzi (active 298 238 BCE) has insightful observations to make in this regard.
A Companion to World Philosophies by Eliot Deutsch, Ron Bontekoe