By John Krige
In 1945, the USA was once not just the most powerful financial and army strength on the earth; it was once additionally the world's chief in technology and expertise. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of technological know-how in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures within the usa to version postwar medical practices and associations in Western Europe on these in the United States. They mobilized political and fiscal help to advertise not only America's medical and technological agendas in Western Europe yet its chilly battle political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing at the paintings of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this try out at medical dominance through the usa should be visible as a kind of "consensual hegemony," related to the collaboration of influential neighborhood elites who shared American values. He makes use of this proposal to research a chain of case experiences that describe how the united states management, senior officials within the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO technological know-how Committee, and influential individuals of the medical establishment--notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia college and Vannevar Bush of MIT--tried to Americanize clinical practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations learn. He info U.S. help for associations together with CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif close to Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's research indicates how consensual hegemony in technological know-how not just served the pursuits of postwar eu reconstruction yet grew to become in a different way of retaining American management and "making the area secure for democracy."
Read or Download American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe (Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology) PDF
Best history & philosophy books
The essays during this quantity deal with 3 primary questions within the philosophy of technology: what's required for a few truth to be facts for a systematic speculation? What does it suggest to claim scientist or a concept explains a phenomenon? may still medical theories that postulate "unobservable" entities resembling electrons be construed realistically as aiming to properly describe an international underlying what's without delay observable, or should still such theories be understood as aiming to properly describe simply the observable international?
Underdetermination. An Essay on proof and the bounds of traditional wisdom is a wide-ranging learn of the thesis that medical theories are systematically "underdetermined" via the knowledge they account for. This much-debated thesis is a thorn within the facet of clinical realists and methodologists of technological know-how alike and of past due has been vigorously attacked.
Explores the differences among technology and pseudoscience.
A refreshingly wealthy and encompassing standpoint of our international, this exam demonstrates how, of the 4 forces of actual nature, it truly is electromagnetic strength that turns on nature in addition to bodies and brains. Arguing that electromagnetism performs an fundamental position in nearly all of recent know-how, this publication conveys how deeply embedded and in detail associated people are to earthly nature.
Extra resources for American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe (Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology)
German coal mines and steel furnaces had Science and the Marshall Plan 23 to be returned to German management, the currency had to be reformed, the three Western zones had to be fused into one, and the country had to be given some measure of self-government. S. taxpayer), Germany had once again to assume its role as a major economic power on the Continent with a measure of sovereignty and with some authority to manage its own affairs. This package of measures was meant both to give expression to German aspirations and to contain them within structures that could channel them in line with Western interests.
Indeed, in a famous memorandum of 27 May, less than three weeks after Truman’s package had been finally agreed by the House, an alarmed Undersecretary of State William Clayton wrote to Dean Acheson that an 20 Chapter 2 aid package of $6–8 billion annually for three years was needed to save a Europe that was “steadily deteriorating. . ” Unless the United States offered further and substantial aid, Europe would disintegrate economically, socially, and politically. This would have “awful implications .
One was military and logistical. 44 The other was political. The Truman administration, fearing the weight of isolationists in Congress, wanted to decouple a treaty intended essentially for the defense of Western Europe from its regional objectives and show that it was pertinent also to the defense of the North American continent. It was a difficult task, and not only in Congress. 47 The signing of the treaty did not quell disputes between the Europeans and the United States. The first concrete defense plans devised in Washington had the United States effectively abandon Europe at the onset of war.
American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe (Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology) by John Krige